Twitter and Romance Scams

This article should take around 3 minutes 8 seconds to read.

Twitter has a problem with romance scams (a variant of the famous 419 scams) especially romance scams targeting female users, and I thought I’d use my latest scammer to look into the issue.

As you can see “Richard” here is following 170 people and has never tweeted.

As may not be surprising, everyone “Richard” follows appears to be a women

But what is interesting is so many of us appear to be based in Scotland / political. I’m guessing that “Richard” doesn’t really care which women he follows, they are just hoping that enough of us fall for him and give him money.
So why is their such a cluster of Scottish political women they are following? My guess is they started with a single woman and followed all the women that profile was following/follows since people interested in similar topics this tactic is likely to form a group of women with similar interests.

Not only does “Richard” not follow and men (or NB people) they only one guy follows them…

Yoann, “Richard”‘s only male friend

Yoann, hasn’t tweeted much, but he does have an Instagram account

Sadly my browser doesn’t render the emojis well, but he claimes to be a 15-year-old male model from the Ivory Coast. he also has a second Instagram account

On his Twitter bio Yoann claims to come from Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Is this 15 year old kid, the scammer behind “Richard” who knows but I’ve reached out to him for comment.

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Scottish Nationalism, everyone’s pushed under the bus.

A photo of the protest outside the tory party hustings, including the banner "England out of Scotland"
This article should take around 2 minutes 5 seconds to read.

Back in May, I wrote an article about transphobia in the SNP, pointing out how the SNP’s independence first approach leads them to a bazaar, dichotomous position that pushes their trans supporters under the bus. Recently I asked in a related facebook conversation if a Scottish Tommy Robinson like figure joined the SNP would it condemn the racism?

Of course, the racism displayed at the protest against the tory party hustings in Perth isn’t typical of the SNP. Most SNP members do not hate English people and a quick look at the comments to the original photo show that.

However, you won’t see the first minister or the SNP condemn this officially because like the transphobia, they just don’t care about the racism or anything else as long as they get independence. Don’t believe me? here’s the opening of their rule book.

First and formost Independence, then scottish interests.

Compare this to the opening of the Labour party rule book.

Clause I.
Name and objects
1) This organisation shall be known as ‘The Labour
Party’ (hereinafter referred to as ‘the Party’).
2) Its purpose is to organise and maintain in
Parliament and in the country a political Labour
3) The Party shall bring together members and
supporters who share its values to develop
policies, make communities stronger through
collective action and support, and promote the
election of Labour Party representatives at all
levels of the democratic process.
4) The Party shall give effect, as far as may be
practicable, to the principles from time to time
approved by Party conference.

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Are “marginalised only” groups useful?

A map of the Caucasus area (a pun on the word caucaus)
This article should take around 1 minutes 44 seconds to read.

Today I was lucky enogth to attend a meeting which ended up discussing an issue I’ve been thinking about for a while, are “marginalised only” groups useful?

The meeting was on the German socialist women’s movement of the 19th-20th century (never let it be said I don’t live a fun and exciting life), but for me one of the most important questions raised was when does ( Women | BMEA | LQBT+ | disabled ) caucus play a positive role and when do they play a negative one?

On the left we tend to fetishistic caucuses, and assume they always play a positive role however one of the speakers pointed out something I’ve noticed before.

Before I go into the negative, it would be worth stating the positive. Caucuses can play an extremely important role. Often members of marginalised groups have difficulty having their voices heard by the wider organization (party or union etc) for a number of reasons, firstly they tend to be smaller in number then the rest of the party and secondly often they are less confident in speaking. Caucuses can allow marginalized members to gain the confidence that the issues they as individuals face a also faced by other members, that by discussing them they can come to an agreed way to campaign on throes issues which helps give individual members the power to speak out.

However this only works if throes take their campaign forward. It is all to easy for them to become, as one comrade said “A therapy session” where we all sit around and moan how bad the world is treating us, rather then have a plan to fight for their needs within the wider organization.

It was refreshing to hear throes on the left critic ideas that other feel are sacrosanct.

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A question regarding Mr. Campbell

This article should take around 2 minutes 44 seconds to read.

I am no fan of Alastair Campbell; I became active in politics in 2001 and one of the first times I was invited to speak was over the Dodgy Dossier. I joined the Labour Party thanks to the push to the left which elected Jeremy Corbyn leader. Why then to I oppose his expulsion?

Mr Campbell broke the rules. Everyone agrees that, nobody is disputing that fact. On May the 24th he admitted that the day before he voted for the Lib Dems in the Euro elections. The Labour parties’ rules are very clear, you may not vote for another party. I not only voted for the Labour Party I overcame my fear and actively campaigned for the party I am proud to be a member of, so why then to I oppose his expulsion?

My concern is with the process, not the outcome. Mr Campbell is far from the first high profile member of the party to be expelled, in 2003 the Member of Parliament for Glasgow Kelvin, George Galloway was expelled for inciting troops to defy orders. Mr Galloway made the comments for which he was expelled on a TV interview on the 28th Of March, he was expelled on the 22nd of October, almost seven months after his comments.

In April 2016 Ken Livingstone was accused of “bringing the party into disrepute” after a radio interview where he made antisemitic comments. He was suspended as a result of the comments, a year later a National Executive Committee (NEC) internal inquiry; determined that he did being the party into disrepute and ordered his suspension continue for another year. Finally, on the 21st of May 2018, over two years after his initial comment, Livingstone resigned from the party.

To me, it is very worrying that in some cases the leading bodies of the party are committed to full investigations while Mr Campbell was expelled, seemingly without any investigation whatsoever. Alastair Campbell should indeed have been suspended, and a full investigation into his actions mounted, however this is not what happened. How can the left claim the moral high ground, the ground we well and truly should own, when we act like the worst extremes of the right of the party? After the Euro elections more than ever, we need to show people the Labour Party speaks for the many and not one side of the party or the other.

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Transphobia and class analysis.

A trans flag with the words "have some respect" written in the center of the white stripe
This article should take around 4 minutes 28 seconds to read.

This article was first published in Solidarity Issue 508, 29 May 2019 the paper of the AWL and has been reproduced here with their permission.

On the 17th of May, the International Day Against Homophobia, Transphobia and Biphobia, the SNP member of parliament, Mhairi Black gave a fantastic speech calling for the reform of the Gender Recognition Act (GRA) [1], this came two days after the only trans councilor in Scotland quit the SNP accusing it of institutional transphobia [2], and just weeks after 15 senior members of the SNP wrote an open letter, publicly attacking the SNP’s plans to reform the GRA [3], the very reforms Mhairi gave an impassioned speech prompting.

The reforms to the Gender Recognition Act shouldn’t be that controversial, the current act allow a trans person to apply for a gender recognising certificate which states their gender, it is effectively a replacement for the birth certificate and can be used in place of it.

Currently, in order to qualify for a gender recognising certificate you have to have to send proof you’ve lived in your “acquired” gender for 2 years, a number of detailed medical reports, proof of your change of name and, putting it out of the reach of many working class trans people £140. The documents are then reviewed by a panel and if all is in order, a gender recognising certificate is issued to you.

The proposed changes would streamline the process allowing the trans person to “self-define”, that is sign a legally binding document stating that they will live in their gender and that it’s not or fraudulent purposes, more or less the same kind of document that you need to sign if you change your name.

Critics of “self-declaration” claim that it would allow men to access women’s only spaces, such as toilets and changing rooms, willfully ignoring the fact that the 2010 equality act already grants trans people the legal protection to use which ever space best suites them, and really have you ever been asked to show your birth certificate before being allowed to use a loo? And that it would give men access to domestic violence refuges, again ignoring the fact, such refuges already accommodate trans women [4].

Clearly therefore those claiming such reforms harm cis women are either mistaken or malicious, given the 15 SNP members include lawyers and MP’s it would be surprising if they were unaware of the law, and the well stated position of women’s centers.

On the surface it may appear strange that an MP can give a fantastical supportive speech, that a party can set out to make Scotland one of the most progressive countries in the world, and yet harbor such transphobia within it ranks, and then not have that transphobia condemned by the party leader.

The SNP has set itself out to be a progressive nationalist party since its beginning. However, it is first and foremost a nationalist party. Its members are happy to promote the notorious transphobic and homophobic ‘Wings over Scotland’ aka Stuart Campbell (who indecently doesn’t live in Scotland, but in Bath) purely because he supports independence. In short, the SNP lacks an analysis of class.

Reforms to the Gender Recognition Act while important, are far from the only issue effecting trans people however it highlights how without a understanding and analysis of the class nature of society it is easy for political organisations and movements to become the home to toxic, regressive views.

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How much do sextortionist’s make?

A close-up of a women with her finger on her lips
This article should take around 2 minutes 11 seconds to read.

Wikipedia defines Sextortion, as

a form of sexual exploitation that employs non-physical forms of coercion to extort money or sexual favors from the victim. Sextortion refers to the broad category of sexual exploitation in which abuse of power is the means of coercion, as well as to the category of sexual exploitation in which threatened release of sexual images or information is the means of coercion.

Just under a year ago spammers started to send sextortion emails such as the ones highlighted by Sophos and Brian Krebs
Since I’m still getting theses email into my honeypot I thought I check to see just how much theses scammers made.
Bitcoin wallets allow you to generate addresses on the fly so in theory each email could have a unique address however a quick check on the latest spammer I got has two reports in the Bitcoin Abuse Database since neither of theses reports are from me at least three people received emails with the same address, it is therefore likely that each run of emails has it’s own address.

So how much has our scammer made?
The original address highlighted in Brian Krebs report shows a single payment of 0.28847409 BTC (About $1,522.34 USD) The address this payment was sent to also received 4 other payments into it, two of them where for smaller amount and therefore don’t look like additional runs. therefore their are three sextortion runs from this scammer earning them a total of a round $4,000. A tidy sum for a few hours work.

That however was the first sextortion scammer. checking back on the bitcoin addresses used in emails previously sent to me, I’ve failed to find a single one that has been paid anything.
Clearly like much else if you have a “good” idea and are able to capitalise on it on it you can make some cash, however for most scammers you make nothing, and risk a long prison sentence.

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Implementing rate limiting with PHP

This article should take around 2 minutes 57 seconds to read.

If you’ve ever implemented a public facing API, you will know how important rate limiting is. If you don’t someone, somewhere will abuse your API’s sending millions of requests a second, either because they want to pull your your data (just ask FFS), because they want to take your service down or just because they messed up the coding and put the request in an infinite loop (… no… I’ve never done that… honest… Sorry @Jack). Whatever the reason, such a huge volume of requests will, like the “Tragedy of the commons“, cause at least a reduced service for other users and increased costs for you and, if left unchecked, eventually cause your service to start falling over.

The answer to this is of course to limit the number of requests a user can make. Their are two main approaches to this, limit by IP address or limit by account, for the purposes of this post, it doesn’t matter too much which you choose, their are good arguments for either (or both) schema’s, the one you decided to implement will be dependent on your use, threat model and willingness to manage accounts.

Regardless of which approach you choose the logic you need to follow is the same. For the purposes of the examples below I’ll assume we’re managing by a key and allowing no more than 100 requests every 10 minutes.

  1. When a request is made, and before you perform whatever function the API performs, log the key/IP address in a table. The details you store here should be just the key/IP address, the endpoint being accessed and a DateTime stamp of the transaction
  2. Perform an SQL query something like SELECT count(*) FROM table WHERE key=@key AND timestamp < DATE_ADD(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP(), INTERVAL -10 MINUTE);
  3. This will return the total number of requests in the last 10 minutes, if that’s less then 101 (101 because we’ve already logged the current request) then we can allow the call otherwise we return a failed message.

The problem with this is that this table will grow huge in a very short amount of time, therefore we should add an event to reduce the size of this table every hour or so (of courses if you want to the know exactly who has accessed what and when, you could you this as as way to log that information).

A second problem arises with this if we want to allow different limits for different users. For example you may want to allow FaceBook to make slightly more calls to your API’s then you would allow this blog to make. This can easily be implemented with a step 0.

  1. Validate the users key and retrieve their settings.

This allows you to revoke keys, set limits at the key level and do fancy things like return different data for different users (who pay different amounts) based on the program they have signed up to.

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Securing data at rest and the database

This article should take around 9 minutes 12 seconds to read.

AKA Best practice for storing your user’s data.

Just last month Quora (a question and answer style site) suffered a huge data breach losing the personal data of over 100 million users (that’s slightly less than the population of Egypt).

So how do you prevent your site from being a target?

In the military world, there is a concept called Defence in Depth, the idea is to make it as hard as possible for your opponent, by slowing them down, forcing them to fight battle after battle for every inch of ground. This concept has been co-opted by the computer security world.

The rest of the article will assume you’ve been hacked, or rather you will be hacked. 
If you look through Wikipedia’s list of security hacks, you’ll notice that originally (70’s, 80’s and 90’s) these hacks where, for the most part, pranks, mostly aimed at either getting relatively minor services (telephone calls) for free, while the later hacks have been aimed at earning serious money for the criminals involved.

So you may feel that since you don’t run a banking or crypto currency site, your don’t need to worry. 

Sadly most people at one time or another have used the same (or almost the same) password on different sites, so while someone stealing all the user names and passwords to your “I love kittens” forum may allow the evil dog lover to post photos of dogs and embarrassed your members if they have used the same password email address and password on “” the evil dog lover could login their and (if high end fashion stores your users payment details) order designer dresses for themselves.

If you where a money grabbing ner-well-a-do, rather than the fine upstanding person you are, you may be tempted to think “Pah , what do I care, I won’t lose anything” however you’d be wrong. If just one of the people whose data was stolen from you was a citizen of the European Union, their data comes under the jurisdiction of the GDPR and you legally *must* protect it.

Hash passwords

One of the most basic ways of protecting a users password is not to store it at all, but store a cryptographic “hash” of the password.
Say for example you’re user choose the password Pa$$w0rd rather then store that you could store 02726d40f378e716981c4321d60ba3a325ed6a4c which is the hashed version of that password.

As you can see it looks nothing like the password, whats more theirs no way to get from the result of the hash to the password, it’s gone, additionally even a small change in the password give a totally different hash result 

Pa%$w0rd, a change of one bit gives you the result a3e35fb1bc27126e65b396456a048c99bea9a5fb and Pa$%w0rd, the same characters as the last one but in a slightly different order, gives you 590f36c43ede760092da844e34e4895c71c5f9f9

However applying the same hash function to the same input word will give the same output hash, so every-time you hash Pa$$w0rd you will get 02726d40f378e716981c4321d60ba3a325ed6a4c. This means that rather than checking if a password exists and user name combination exist within the database you can just check if the hash exists.

As I alluded to before their are a number of different hash functions, some stronger then others. In general you should go with the strongest you can get. With the latest version of PHP this is likely SHA3-512. if your having to work with older versions of PHP it may be SHA2.

Within PHP this can be implemented like this

A full description of the PHP function hash can be found in the online manual.


As noted above every-time you run a word through a hash function you get the same answer. So what if someone where to run every common password through a hash function, note the results, then if you see that value again you know what the password was originally.

Well people do, do this, and the results are called rainbow tables. and you can even do them on line. If you put the three hash we created earlier into crack station you will notice that it only comes up with one success.

A screen shot of the results from crackstation

This is because it takes a *lot* of space, time and therefore money to generate rainbow tables, and therefore they only focus on the most common billion or so passwords (yep, billion). So how do you defeat rainbow tables? make the password not in throes billion words.

If when you generate the hash for the password you add a random word, called a salt, to the end you create a password that (likely) won’t appear in a rainbow table. and as long as you also store that salt in the database along with the hash you’ll still be able to append it to the password and check the hash. 

If you wanted to improve the security (slightly) more you could use two salts, one fixed salt, stored in a config file and one generated for each account and stored within the database. Within PHP this may look a little like this.

The benefit of adding a fixed salt may not the immediately obvious. From a hackers point of view, they may see a database table with a password that’s clearly a hash and a salt and, if your passwords are customers are worth the extra effort, try common passwords + the hash against the hash you have stored. Including a fixed hash that the hacker will only know about if they have access to you’re source code / config files (and if they do you have serious problems) allows you to make that extra effort by the hacker pointless.

Stored procedures

As I said in my last paragraph

if they have access to you’re source code / config files

When most people think of a hacked site they assume the hacker has total access to everything. However generally the hacker is “just” after the database. Most attacks of this nature use what is called SQL injection to send rouge commands to the database. 

The best way to deal with SQL injection is to use SQL Parameters, in PHP that is done as follows.

This is best used with with stored procedures

Encrypted columns

Even if you’ve salted and hashed all the user passwords and put all your queries in parameter’s their are still things that can be done to protect you users data, it can be encrypted while stored in the database.

By using AES_ENCRYPT when inserting and updating data (and AES_DECRYPT when Selecting) with a known passphrase stored within a config file if a hacker does gain access to your database all they will get is encrypted data.



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